Determining the Global Outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury in Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries: A Multi-center, International, Prospective Cohort Study

GNS-I study summary


Every year, there are about sixty-nine million new cases of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) worldwide. However, there are wide variations in the management of TBI across low-, middle-, and high-income countries which affect TBI outcomes worldwide.

Study Design

GNS-I study is a multicenter, international, prospective cohort study conducted within the period from the 1st of June 2019 to the 31st of December 2021 (last patient out).  The follow-up duration for each patient is 90 days.


The study will be conducted in self-selected registered centers worldwide. Any hospital receiving and managing TBI patients is eligible to participate in Global Neurosurg-1; The minimum patient number per center is 12 patients per one team; all consecutive TBI cases must be included.

Study Duration and Team Members

Within the period from June 1, 2019, to December 31, 2021, each team (three people) selects a two-week period. Multiple teams in the same center can participate as long as they will collect data in different 2-week periods.

Eligibility Criteria for patients

All TBI cases presenting at the study centers are eligible for inclusion in the study irrespective of their age and gender.

Data collection

We will collect anonymous data on patient demographics, TBI etiology and severity, clinical and surgical management, and mortality rates at different time points. All data will be submitted to the secure RedCap system of the Brain Institute at Oregon Health and Science University, USA.

Ethical approvals

Study ethical approval will be acquired from all participating centers. All collected data will be kept confidential and will be used only for this study